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La libertà di stampa? L’Italia è 77esima… o forse no?

Ve la ricordate la classifica sui paesi corrotti? Quella dove poi è venuto fuori che si misura la percezione della corruzione e non la corruzione in sé? Oggi è la volta della libertà di stampa [1]:

Libertà di stampa, l’Italia crolla: ora è al 77° posto

Nella classifica stilata da Reporter senza frontiere perdiamo 4 posizioni. Fra le cause i giornalisti intimiditi o minacciati di morte. Meglio di noi anche Burkina Faso e Botswana

Con tanto di sberleffo finale «Per farsi un’idea dell’allarmante situazione italiana basta dare un’occhiata alla classifica: ci precedono Paesi come Tonga, Burkina Faso e Botswana». Che dite di dare un’occhiata alla metodologia adottata? Giusto per non farsi ingannare dalle percezioni.

—- Reporter senza frontiere: chi era costui?  —-

La classifica è opera di questi signori [2]:

Based in Paris, Reporters Without Borders (RSF) is an independent NGO with consultative status with the United Nations, UNESCO, the Council of Europe and the International Organization of the Francophonie (OIF). Its foreign sections, its bureaux in ten cities, including Brussels, Washington, Berlin, Tunis, Rio de Janeiro and Stockholm, and its network of correspondents in 130 countries give RSF the ability to mobilize support, challenge governments and wield influence both on the ground and in the ministries and precincts where media and Internet standards and legislation are drafted.

Founded by four journalists in the southern French city Montpellier in 1985, RSF is now one of the world’s leading NGOs in the defence and promotion of freedom of information. Registered in France as a non-profit organization since 1995, RSF has distinguished itself in China, by its protests during the 2008 Beijing Olympics; in Africa, by creating the only independent radio station broadcasting to Eritreans in 2009; in Haiti, by creating a media support centre after the January 2010 earthquake; and more recently in Syria by providing training to journalists and bloggers.

Per quanto riguarda la metodologia si tratta di una parte qualitativa e di una quantitativa:

The degree of freedom available to journalists in 180 countries is determined by pooling the responses of experts to a questionnaire devised by RSF. This qualitative analysis is combined with quantitative data on abuses and acts of violence against journalists during the period evaluated. The criteria evaluated in the questionnaire are pluralism, media independence, media environment and self-censorship, legislative framework, transparency, and the quality of the infrastructure that supports the production of news and information.

To compile the Index, RSF has developed an online questionnaire with 87 questions focusedonthesecriteria87questionsare asked. Translated into 20 languages including English, Arabic, Chinese, Russian, Indonesian and Korean, the questionnaire is targeted at the media professionals, lawyers and sociologists who are asked to complete it. Scores are calculated on the basis of the responses of the experts selected by RSF combined with the data on abuses and violence against journalists during the period evaluated.

In pratica si prendono degli esperti – quali? Come li si sceglie? – e si chiede loro della situazione vigente dall’altra parte del mondo. Facile, no?

Gli indicatori sono i seguenti:

  • 1 / Pluralism [indicator scorePlur]

Measures the degree to which opinions are represented in the media.

  • 2/ Media independence [indicator scoreInd]

Measures the degree to which the media are able to function independently of sources of political, governmental, business and religious power and influence.

  • 3/ Environment and self-censorship [indicator scoreEA]

Analyses the environment in which news and information providers operate.

  • 4/ Legislative framework [indicator scoreCL]

Measures the impact of the legislative framework governing news and information activities.

  • 5/ Transparency [indicator scoreTra]

Measures the transparency of the institutions and procedures that affect the production of news and information.

  • 6/ Infrastructure [indicator scoreInf]

Measures the quality of the infrastructure that supports the production of news and information.

  • 7/ Abuses [indicator scoreExa]

Measures the level of abuses and violence.

Each indicator is given a score between 0 and 100.

Ed ecco il punteggio definitivo:

  • From 0 to 15 points: Good (white)
  • From 15.01 to 25 points: Fairly good (yellow)
  • From 25.01 to 35 points: Problematic (orange)
  • From 35.01 to 55 points: Bad (red)
  • From 55.01 to 100 points: Very bad (black)

—- E l’Italia? —-

L’Italia, come si è detto, si posiziona in 77esima posizione su 180 paesi presi in esame e in calo di 4 posizioni rispetto all’anno precedente.

In May 2015, the daily La Repubblica reported that between 30 and 50 journalists were under police protection because they had been threatened. The level of violence against reporters (including verbal and physical intimidation and death threats) is alarming. Journalists investigating corruption and organized crime are the ones who are targeted most. In the Vatican City, it is the judicial system that is harassing the media in connection with the Vatileaks and Vatileaks 2 scandals. Two journalists are facing up to eight years in prison as a result of writing books about corruption and intrigue within the Holy See.

Bellissimo, solo una domanda: da quando in qua il Vaticano è parte dell’Italia? E non solo, prediamo il Niger con la sua 52esima posizione: «Several news media were the targets of police violence for covering post-Charlie Hebdo demonstrations in January 2015. The run-up to the February 2016 presidential election was marked by arrests of journalists and obstruction of media activity. Access to social networks such as Facebook and WhatsApp and the sending of SMS messages were blocked for three days.». Correggetemi se sbaglio, ma non mi pare che sia mai successa una cosa del genere durante una tornata elettorale in Italia.

Senza dimenticare che in Tanzania – 71esima – ci sono leggi che «making it illegal to publish any “official” data not approved by the government or any information online that the government deemed “deceptive, misleading, or inaccurate.” Introduction of the Access to Information Bill would also allow the government to prosecute journalists if it deems information they published to be not in the public interest. Tanzania also permanently banned a weekly newspaper and detained some of its editors at the beginning of 2016».

E che dire della Namibia dall’alto della usa 17esima posizione? Ecco qui: «In Namibia, critical journalists find a refuge on the Internet, where they are not subject to control, but self-censorship is common in the state-owned media. Public order and security legislation is often used to restrict freedom of information. Journalists are often the targets of attacks by political parties. This was the case during the 2014 elections, when NBC journalists were attacked by both ruling party officials and members of the opposition».

In buona compagnia della 48esima Mauritania: «But the approval of a cyber-crimes law and blogger Mohamed Cheikh Ould Mohamed’s death sentence on a charge of apostasy in 2014 have been a source of concern. Fear of reprisals makes most journalists censor themselves when they cover such subjects as corruption, the military, Islam or slavery, which still exists in Mauritania».

Quanto basta per farmi concludere che sul piano metodologico è una ricerca quantomeno bizzarra.

Approfondimenti:

_ a proposito di quelli che sono onesti perché sono protestanti: http://www.ilpost.it/2016/04/20/nordea-svezia-panama-papers/.

_ e di quelli che sono onesti perché c’hanno il Kaizen, signora mia: http://www.lastampa.it/2016/04/20/motori/attualita/mitsubishi-ammette-di-aver-alterato-i-test-sulle-emissioni-di-mila-auto-9ikLB1q6uKHZplrEWeOLSN/pagina.html.

_____________________________________________________________________

[1] Cfr. http://www.lastampa.it/2016/04/20/esteri/libert-di-stampa-litalia-crolla-ora-al-posto-jl0lw7T7ev7j31hRKIpCwJ/pagina.html.

[2] Cfr. https://rsf.org/en.

 

Annunci

4 commenti su “La libertà di stampa? L’Italia è 77esima… o forse no?

  1. lorenzo
    23 aprile 2016

    Non si lancia il sasso per nascondere la mano… Che opinione ti sei fatto di questa ONG? Semplici spacciatori di fuffa? O magari rispondono a qualche logica politica nel produrre determinati risultati?

    • Charly
      23 aprile 2016

      Non saprei, non ho elementi per giudicare. Posso solo valutare la ricerca in termini metodologici e sotto questo punto di vista é quantomeno buffa.

  2. lorenzo
    24 aprile 2016

    Comunque, ottimo spunto di riflessione. Grazie!

    • Charly
      24 aprile 2016

      Figurati.

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Questa voce è stata pubblicata il 22 aprile 2016 da in Uncategorized con tag , , , , .
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